When cities develop and become crowded with houses, people begin to make gardens. A garden is a miniature of nature. Aristocrats of the Heian period consructed houses in the shindenzukuri style with rooms connected by corridors to the central living area. The rooms were divided up with blinds and screens and the floors were wooden.
A large pond was constructed in front of the shinden, with streams flowing between the buildings and with clear water flowing into the pond. Fields were planted with shrubs and trees so that the views and atmospheres of the four seasons could be enjoyed. Insects were released so that their chirping could be heard, and the feeling of autumn in Sagano (an area in the west of Kyoto famous for its autumn colours and insects), for example, could be created within the residence.
Shindenzukuri was a living space in which the building and garden were a single unit. This became a tradition in Japanese architecture and many famous buildings were created, such as the Katsura Villa, that embodied 'teioku ichinyo' (an exquisite harmony between the building and the garden). This is an expression of the Japanese feeling of being unable to live without nature. In the town houses of heavily populated areas there were back gardens and interior gardens and spaces created where the blue sky was visible, so that contact with nature was not lost. This way of living is an eternal ideal for the Japanese.